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The Impact and Application of Smart Grid on Global Energy Delivery

ABSTRACT
This paper presents a detailed survey of global energy delivery and smart grid approaches. Particularly in the sense that shows the impacts on the production of energy resources globally. How can energy losses be reduced, primarily by implementing smart grid approaches? Power transfers and reduction of energy sources can be made by smart grids with information technology (I.T) such as sensors digital meters and communication networks. Energy from photovoltaic and wind power are some of the energy delivery systems that have gained attention since they are cheap and environment friendly and do not emit greenhouse gas. Presently available grid is insufficient to serve future systems. For this reason, an intelligent grid system
is required to support future needs for society. This paper expounds on the impacts of the existing power delivery system and suggests a smart grid for global energy delivery on a better management system.

KEYWORDS: GHG, T&D, BPL, ARE, AEDB, SERC, IOT.

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Druitt, J., & Früh, W. G. (2012). Simulation of demand management and grid balancing with electric vehicles. Journal of Power Sources, 216, 104-116.

A 4G LTE Evolved packet Core Planning and Deployment in Freetown Sierra Leone

ABSTRACT
Wireless broadband subscribers have tripled in the past two decades in the world. It subsequently adds more burden on the network traffic, thereby pressuring the current 2G / 3G wireless network infrastructural development in Freetown, Sierra Leone. The existing 2G / 3G network infrastructures in Freetown offer limited resources for download and upload speed of 12.54Mbps and 2.59Mbps, respectively, to active subscribers.
The exponential increase in the country’s population has adverse effects on the subscriber’s database. Therefore, a considerable task is faced by the country’s telecommunication network infrastructures to devise an improvement and efficient technologies to augment the current system to handle the numerous issues. Three active private mobile network operators (X, Y, & Z) and one Government-owned operator (W) exist in the country. The only operator that runs across the country is operator X, and it has the highest number of subscribers. The country has just rollout it Long Term Evolution (LTE) by the private MNOs.
The research is to encourage the Sierra Leone National Telecommunication Commission (NATCOM), a telecommunication regulatory body, to mandate all MNOs in the country to roll out the 4G LTE core network infrastructure in Freetown. ARIMA model is used to analyze the throughputs (kbps) prediction to ascertain 4G LTE rollout using the Python programming language is an effective alternative. Statistical data from operator X for ten years for Freetown municipality from January 2010 – November 2019 was collected.
The research concludes that 4G LTE deployment or upgrade was necessary for
the Freetown municipality.

KEYWORDS: 4G Long Term Evolution (LTE), ARIMA Model, Evolved Packet
Core (EPC), Short-Term, and Long-Term Predictions.

REFERENCES
Saleh, A.B., Bulakci, Ö., Hämäläinen, J., Redana, S., and Raaf, B., (2012), Analysis of the Impact of Site
Planning on the Performance of Relay Deployments, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular
Technology, vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 3139–3150.
Alfin Hikmaturokhman et al. (2018), 4G LTE Evolved Packet Core Planning with Call Switch
Fallback Technology, Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic, and Computer Engineering.,
Pg. 134, Vol. 10 No. 1-6
Bjerke, B. A., (2011), LTE-advanced and the evolution of LTE deployments, IEEE Wireless
Communications, Vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 4–5.
Bharti Kalra and D.K Chauhan (2014), A Comparative Study of Mobile Wireless Communication
Network: 1G to 5G. Ph.D. Scholar (CSE), Noida International University, Greater Noida, India.
International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology Research. Vol. 2,
Issue 3, P.P.: 430-433.
Bin Yang and Mingyan Jiang (2016), A Forecasting Model for Data Center Bandwidth Utilization. SAI
Intelligent Systems Conference, Conference on IEEE: 3039/3046.
Dababneh, D., St-Hilaire, M., and Makaya, C., (2013), Traffic model for long term evolution networks,
2013 Int. Conf. Sel. Top. Mob. Wirel. Networking, MoWNeT, pp. 13– 18, 2013.
Dima Dababneh (2013). LTE Traffic Generation and Evolved Packet Core (EPC) Network Planning.
Ottawa-Carleton Institute for Electrical and Computer Engineering (OCIECE), Canada. Pg. 41.
Feng Huifang and Yantai Shu (2013), Network traffic analysis and prediction based on AMP.
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280
Park, J., Raza, S.M, Thorat .P, and Kim D.S (2015), Network Traffic Prediction Model Based on
Training Data. Computational Science and Its Applications, International Conference on
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Jian Kuang et al. (2013). A Network Traffic Prediction Model using Two-Dimensional Correlation
and Single Exponential Smoothing Communication Technology (ICCT), International
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Hanzo, L., Haas, H., Imre, S., O’Brien, D., Rupp, M., and Gyongyosi, L., (2012), Wireless Myths,
Realities, and Futures: From 3G/4G to Optical and Quantum Wireless, Proceedings of the
IEEE, vol. 100, no. Special Centennial Issue, pp. 1853–1888.
Lun Zhang, Qiuchen Liu, Wenchen Yang, Nai Wei, and Decun Dong (2013). An Improved K-nearest
Neighbor Model for Short-term Traffic Flow Prediction. International Conference of
Transportation Professionals, 13th COTA Conference on Elsevier, 654/660.
Jaber, M., Dawy, Z., Akl, N., and Yaacoub, E., (2016), Tutorial on LTE/LTE-A Cellular Network
Dimensioning Using Iterative Statistical Analysis, IEEE Communications Surveys and
Tutorials, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 1355–1383,
Qubati, M., LTE Network Planning and Optimization, Taiz University F, 2014.
Poo KuanHoong, Ian K.T, Tan, and Chee-YikKeong (2012), BitTorrent Network Traffic Forecasting
With ARIMA. International Journal of Computer Networks and Communications (IJCNC):
143/146.
Teleco, S.L., “Research and Markets: Sierra Leone – Telecoms,” 2018. [Online]. Available:
http://prepaid-data-sim-card.wikia.com/wiki/Sierra_Leone.
Samar Raza Talpur, Tahar Kechadi (2016), Ensemble of Flexible Neural Tree and Ordinary
Differential Equations for Small-time Scale Network Traffic Prediction, International Journal
of Computer, 12: 195/201.
Tao Peng, Zhoujin Tang (2015), A Small Scale Forecasting Algorithm for Network Traffic based on
Relevant Local Least Squares Support Vector Machine Regression Model. International
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Information Sciences, 9: 653(659).
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Review, W.P., Population of Cities in Sierra Leone, 2018. [Online]. Available:
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The Effects of Social Media on Public Emergency Response Mechanisms in Sierra Leone

ABSTRACT
The use of social media in a public emergency is dated back to the terrorist attacks (2001) in the United States. Since then, it is has been used to effectively manage critical happenings in public emergency or disaster events and also for managing future public emergencies. Unfortunately, the underdeveloped countries are far behind in the race to enhance infrastructures that would mitigate or avert critical events from happening.
The effects of social media are keyed to public emergencies as it allows the instant flow of communication to a broader population, helps government or organizations locate those affected by the disaster, and to help further those organizations to manage the available resources allocated to that public emergencies effectively. It can be exploiting the appropriate social media tools focusing on the use of ICT before, during, or after the emergency crisis.
Furthermore, the exponential increase in fake news of modern times is a concern for government and organizations handling the public emergency crisis. The politicization of national issues is another limitation, as they help to spread fake news and unfounded rumors to score political gain during a public emergency crisis. The research concludes that social media is a valuable tool  to mitigate or avert public emergency if there are enhanced infrastructures backed with strong laws that would punish fake news/rumors perpetrators and future potentials of social media.

KEYWORDS: Public Emergency, Fake News, Social Media.

REFERENCES
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Making article “Web 2.0 and Internet Social Networking: A New tool for Disaster
Management? – Lessons from Taiwan.
Chertoff: Katrina scenario did not exist at https://www.cnn.com/2005/US/09/03/katrina.chertoff/
Denef, S., Bayerl, P. S., & Kaptein, N. (2013), Social media and the police —Tweeting practices of
British police forces during the August 2011 Riots, In Proceedings of the 31st international
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Eric T. White (2014), The Application of Social Media in Disasters, How can Social Media Support an
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(Eds.), From Mayhem to meaning: Assessing the social and cultural impact of the 2001 foot
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Harrald, J. R., Egan, D. M., & Jefferson, T. (2002), Web-enabled disaster and crisis response: What
have we learned from September 11. In Proceedings of the Bled eConference (pp. 69–83).
Hiltz, S. R., Diaz, P., & Mark, G. (2011), Introduction: Social media and collaborative systems for
crisis management. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (ToCHI), 18(4), 1–6
Hughes, A. L., Denis, L. A. S., Palen, L., & Anderson, K. M. (2014), Online public communications by
police & fire services during the 2012 Hurricane Sandy. Proceedings of the conference on
human factors in Computing Systems (CHI) (pp. 1505–1514). Toronto, Canada: ACM.
Ibrahim Abdulai Sawaneh (2020): A survey on “The Effects of Social Media on Public Emergency
Response Mechanisms in Sierra Leone” at
https://app.surveyplanet.com/results/5e7cdb1d039d7362fa9787f6
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health, (12.1) 1-7.
Mari Saito (2012), Reuters article “Born from Japan disasters, Line app, sets sights on US, China.”
Palen, L., & Liu, S. B. (2007), Citizen communications in crisis: Anticipating a future of ICTsupported public participation. The conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
(CHI) (pp. 727– 736). San Jose, USA: ACM Press.
Palen, L., Vieweg, S., Liu, S. B., & Hughes, A. L. (2009), Crisis in a networked world: Features of
computer-mediated communication on April 16, 2007, Virginia Tech Event. Social Science
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Pipek, V., Liu, S. B., & Kerne, A. (2014), Special issue: Crisis informatics and collaboration. Computer
Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), 23 (4–6), 339–345.
Reuter C, Kaufhold M-A. Fifteen years of social media in emergencies: A retrospective review and
future directions for crisis Informatics. J Contingencies and Crisis Management. 2017;00:1–
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Reuter, C., Ludwig, T., Friberg, T., Pratzler-Wanczura, S., & Gizikis, A. (2015), Social media and
emergency services? Interview study on current and potential use in 7 European countries.
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(IJISCRAM), 7(2).
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Systems (CHI). Seoul, Korea: ACM Press
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to Disaster.”
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Cybercrimes - Threats, Challenges, Awareness, and Solutions in Sierra Leone

ABSTRACT
The internet hosts all online activities either for public or private usage. It is a powerful online podium where people socialize, make new friends, conduct academic research, perform online business transactions, share sensitive data, communication over the internet, surveillance purpose by security agencies, monitor climatic condition, used in e-healthcare system, online banking, online pay, e-commerce, defense system, and host of others critical infrastructures are the new order of the day. This has attracted online criminals to diverse numerous malicious techniques to invade people’s privacy and also exploit those data. A new game has resulted in these online malicious activities are known as “cybercrime or internet crime” which is a rewarding business as of today. Therefore, it has become difficult to protect those online activities as cybercrimes are growing daily, which suggests that effective and appropriate countermeasures are needed to combat those threats and make online activities more secure. The research paper presents the various types of cybercrime activities, countermeasures, and suggestions for online users.

KEYWORDS: Cybercrime, Cyber-Law, Cybercriminals, Cyberspace, Hacking

REFERENCES
Anand Kumar Shrivastav, Ekata, (2013) ICT Penetration and Cybercrime in India: A Review, International Journal of
Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, 3, 414-419. 
Harpreet Singh Dalla, Geeta, (2013) Cyber Crime – A Threat to Persons, Property, Government, and Societies, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, 3.
Hemraj Saini, Yerra Shankar Rao, Panda, T.C., (2012) Cyber-Crimes and their Impacts: A Review, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, 2, 202-209
Lee, M. (2015). The evolution of cybercrime: From Julius Caesar and Prince Philip to state-sponsored malware. International Business Times. Retrieved from: http://ibtimes.co.uk.
Prince, Mathew (2016). Empty DDoS Threats: Meet the Armada Collective”. Cloudflare.
Richard Donegan, (2012) Bullying and Cyberbullying: History, Statistics, Law, Prevention, and Analysis, The Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications. 3, 33-42.
Romagna, M., Van Den Hout, N.J., (2017). “Hacktivism and Website Defacement: Motivations, Capabilities and Potential Threats”. Proceedings of the 27th Virus Bulletin International Conference: 41 – 50.
Saroj Mehta & Vikram Singh, (2013) Study of Awareness about Cyber Laws in the Indian Society, International Journal of Computing and Business Research, 4.
Taylor, R. W., Fritsch, E. J., & Liederbach, J. (2015). Digital crime and digital terrorism. (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River,
NJ: Pearson.
Taylor, R. W., Fritsch, E. J., & Liederbach, J. (2015). Digital crime and digital terrorism. (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Vineet Kandpal and Singh, R.K., (2013) Latest Face of Cybercrime and Its Prevention In India, International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 2, 150-156.

A Computerized Patient’s Database Management System

ABSTRACT
Healthcare in Sierra Leone faces major dilemma when it comes to recording keeping with high demand for medical treatment and services. The medical records must appropriately have all of the patients’ medical history. Healthcare professionals should always find a way to maintain the physiological parameters that can be referenced when the need arises as it can be used for several purposes. This study on patient’s database management system is design to transform the manual way of searching, sorting, keeping and accessing patient medical information (files) into electronic medical record (EMR) thereby eliminating the traditional system. Existing platforms (manual systems) have been critically examined and hence a computer based system is essential for optimal result. The computer-based platform produces patient’s records that enhances medical practioner’s to constantly monitor their patients daily in and out of the hospital. The research looks for a more reliable and efficient scheme via computer technology to process patient health record ensuring proficient outcome that is costeffective, save time and speed-up treatment. The research proposed patient database as an alternative solution to the growing world population especially third world nations. The system will serves as a communication tool thereby easing an efficient transfer of patient medical data to healthcare professionals for effective supervision within and outside the hospital. Furthermore, it also accelerates the transfer of patient healthcare data to healthcare medical servers or individual such as insurance company or employer. Efficient storage of medical records renders accuracy diagnosis that enhances reliable and detail prescriptions which can be referenced as it is needed.

KEYWORDS: Data; Database; Patient; Hospital; Medical Record; Electronic Medical Record.

REFERENCES
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[2] Miller, R. J. (1994). “Modernizing Health care through Electronic Medical Record “information system http://www.clinictools.org
[3] Brown, P.J. (2000). Evaluation of the quality of information retrieval of clinics finding from a computerized patient database using a semantic technological.
[4] Laubbel, A. (1998) “Define medical health care, or medical documentation of a patient history and care.
[5] Schneider, K., & Wagner, I. (1993). Constructing the Dossier Representative. Computer-Based Information Sharing in French Hospitals. In: Computer Supported Cooperation Work, NO 1. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
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[8] Tumba, I.A (2006) information system development to enhance the work of medical practitioners in hospital/clinics.
[9] Landon, K.C. and London, J.P (2002), Management Information System, Prentice- Hall, New Jersey

Medical Image De-noising and Compression via a 2-D Wavelet Transform

ABSTRACT
Medical Images generally exhibits high level artefacts called noise. De-noising a medical image is essential in medical field. Transmitting medical image over the internet needs to be compressed and also remove noise to produce excellent result that can be easily viewed and interpreted by medical professionals. Wavelet transform enhances the superiority of an image and reduces noise level that is been transmitted. The image to be process is loaded and decomposed into level 3 using wavelet type known as biorthogonal via 2D wavelet transform. Furthermore, soft threshold is chosen to reduce the noise in the image. Unlike, hard threshold is an opposite of soft thresholding. Soft thresholding minimizes the coefficients above the threshold value. Medical image compression & de-noising using wavelet-based decomposition without discarding image originality describes horizontal, vertical and diagonal details of the image.

KEYWORDS: Discrete Wavelet Transform, Medical Images, De-Noising, 2D Wavelet, Image Compression.

REFERENCES
[1] James S. Walker, ―Wavelets Based Image Processing,‖ Department of Mathematics University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire
[2] Said, A., & Pearlman, W. A. (to appear). An image multiresolution representation for Lossless and lossy compression. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing. R. C. Gonzalez, R. E. Woods, S. L. Eddins, ―Digital Image Processing using MATLAB‖.
[4] J. Walker and T. Nguyen. Wavelet-based image compression [J]. 2001
[5] S. Grgic, M. Grgic, B. Zovko-Cihlar. Performance analysis of image compression using wavelets [J].2001, 48(3), 682–695
[6] Z. Zhang and B. D. Rao, “Extension of SBL algorithms for the recovery of block sparse signals with intrablock correlation,” IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing, vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 2009–2015, 2013.
[7] S. Bhavani, K. Thanushkodi, “A Survey on Coding Algorithms in Medical Image Compression”, International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering, Vol. 02, No. 05, pp. 1429-1434, 2010.
[8] Kanwaljot Singh Sidhu, Baljeet Singh Khaira, Ishpreet Singh Virk, Medical Image Denoising In The Wavelet Domain Using Haar And DB3 Filtering, International Refereed Journal of Engineering and Science (IRJES).
[9] Y.Sukanya1, J.Preethi, ―Analysis of Image Compression Algorothms Using Wavelet Transform with GUI in MATLAB‖, IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308.

Application of Discrete Wavelet Transform for Compressing Medical Image

ABSTRACT
There are calls for enhancing present healthcare sectors when it comes to handling huge data size of patients’ records. The huge files contain lots of duplicate copies. Therefore, the ideal of compression comes into play. Image data compression removes redundant copies (multiple unnecessary copies) that increase the storage space and transmission bandwidth. Image data compression is pivotal as it helps reduce image file size and speeds up file transmission rate over the internet through multiple wavelet analytics methods without loss in the transmitted medical image data. Therefore this report presents data compression implementation for healthcare systems using a proposed scheme of discrete wavelet transform (DWT), with capacity of compressing and recovering medical image data without data loss. Healthcare images such as those of human heart and brain need fast transmission for reliable and efficient result. Using DWT which has optimal reconstruction quality greatly improves compression.

KEYWORDS: Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Image Compression Medical Image

REFERENCES
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[4] U. Varshney, “Pervasive Healthcare and Wireless Health Monitoring,” Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 12, pp. 113-127, March 2007.
[5] Liu Bo, Yang Zhaorong, “Image Compression Based on Wavelet Transform”, International Conference on Measurement, Information and Control (MIC), 2012
[6] Remya George, Mrs. Manimekalai, “A Novel Approach for Image Compression Using Zero Tree Coding”, International Conference on Electronics and Communication System (ICECS -2014), Coimbatore, India
[7] S. Bhavani, K. Thanushkodi, “A Survey on Coding Algorithms in Medical Image Compression”, International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering, Vol. 02, No. 05, pp. 1429-1434, 2010.

An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Performance Appraisal System in Educational Institution: IAMTECH Sierra Leone as a Case Study

ABSTRACT
Human Resource Management (HRM) plays vital role in educational institutions. HRM is an essential ingredient for changing the scope and dynamism in evaluating worker’s performance. Performance appraisal permits institution to supervise their employee’s performance relating to competencies, punctuality, pedigree and potentials. Ignoring effective performance appraisal system results to low work output. Institutional objectives can be achieved by effectively applying performance appraisal system with diverse positive outcomes and diligently monitoring both academic and administrative staff of the Institute of Advanced Management and Technology (IAMTECH) Sierra Leone. Effective performance management and appraisal system has ultimately improved staff performance and influenced their potentials in thinking, and doing work. Importantly, it brings benefits to employer and employee by creating a plain level ground for both parties. Furthermore, performance appraisal system delivers a complete assessment of staff performance at IAMTECH. However the researchers established dissatisfaction with some appraisal processes, such as management not backing the appraisal process, authorities are not questioned for not completing their appraisal process on time, and the absence of performance appraisal workshop/seminar/training provided to the staff at IAMTECH and more importantly, the performance appraisal system is done yearly at IAMTECH. IAMTECH uses rating scale, descriptive system and management by objective methods to evaluate their employees. Noting that management by objective is the most widely used method and hence, our method of effective performance appraisal system has created positive influence on job performance at IAMTECH.

KEYWORDS: Feedback, Theory, HRM, Performance Appraisal System; Prejudice, Perception

REFERENCES
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[2] Murphy, K. R., & Cleveland, J. (1995). Understanding performance appraisal: Social, organizational, and goal-based perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA:
[3] Patten, T. H. (1977). Pay: Employee compensation and incentive plans. New York: The Free Press.
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Performance appraisal: dilemma or desire? Sam Advanced Management Journal, 54 (2): 26-30.
[14] Bue W.L. and Byars L.L. (2005, 11th edition) Management: Skills and Application: McGrawHill/ Irwin Inc.

Financial Management in Party Politics to Enhance Sustainable Development in Developing Nations

ABSTRACT
Politics in developing countries remain a huge concern in terms of development actualization. The types of politics practiced in this part of the world (global South) tells the type of developmental progress countries make. This article on an analysis in relation to how political parties economically operate try to bring out things that underscore political parties activities focusing on ruling parties and how they manage in handling national economy that which will bring transparency and accountability in party politics that will manifest in the national platform. In doing this, this paper tries to explain how political parties should address and handle issues of financial concerns within political parties activities and if given the chance to govern the country how they can manifest the good parts of handling finances when it comes to public financial management. This article will try to articulate issues that will analyse clear political financial management alongside transparency and accountability within parties which could be easily seen in the three arms of government and other public offices when a political party is being mandated to serve as governing party.
This paper therefore, examines the extant role that the governing parties have played in many developing countries in influencing government policies through public finances in the sustenance of positive democratic governance and release options of sound political management for sustainable democratic growth.

KEYWORDS: Development, Government of Sierra Leone (GoSL), Transparency and Accountability.

REFERENCES
[1] Address by Professor PLO Lumumba on corruption in Tanzania 2017
[2] Kargbo, A.H. Governance Process in Sierra Leone from 1799-2009. Vancouver, Canada: Write Room Press, 2009
[3] Kargbo, A. H. Post-conflict Governance in Sierra Leone. Vancouver, Canada: Write Room Press 2011
[4] Gabril, Almond & Powell Jr. Comparative Politics Today: A New World View. Boston: Little Brown and Company,1980.
[5] Principles of Transparency and Accountability, The International Standards of Supreme Audit Institutions, ISSAI, Copenhagen K. Denmark

Student Dissertation Database Management System: IMATECH Sierra Leone as a Case Study.

ABSTRACT
As a big data technological innovation emerges due to man’s continuous use of data, it has prompted an immediate attention that will provide necessary solutions to cope with the current trend of data usability. Universities and colleges process large datasets in trillions of bytes to the extent that the traditional filling system can no longer handle them. Having thousands of students’ dissertations to process will be huge problem using the traditional filling system that requires large physical storage space with lots of inconsistencies, when it comes to processing, analyzing and archiving records is a big challenge, especially checking for plagiarism. Therefore, this research is designed to eliminate the challenges posed by the traditional platform that incurs huge amount of money and time. The proposed scheme is known as “IAMTECH Dissertation Database Management Platform” which is currently in use at the testing stage as an effective solution for proper record keeping and retrieval with minimal cost. The system has proved effective and efficient as compared to the old system. New functionalities are required to be included in the new system in the near future as the need arises due to intensive advancement in the information and data usage

KEYWORDS: IAMTECH, Database Management Platform, Big Data

REFERENCES
[1] Abraham Silberschatz, Henry F. Korth, S. Sudarshan. Database System Concepts. 2001, 4th Edn.
[2] Jeffrey A. Hoffer, Mary B. Prescott, Fred R. McFadden, 2002. Modern Database Management. 6th Edn.
[3] http://www.webopedia.com. (Data Download Date: 3 Nisan 2018).
[4] Shimozono K., Itsukiy M., Harasaka Y. and Furukawa Z., (2010), “User Management in an Educational Computer System: Personal Information Management,” Fukuoka, Japan, pp. 1-6.
[5] Connolly, T. M. and C. E. Begg, 2004. Database System: A Practical Approach to Design, Implementation and Management. 4rd Edn., Addison Wesley; ISBN: 10: 0321210255, pp: 1236.
[6] Adams, C., Beath, C. M, Bolan, R., Branin, J., D’Elia, G., Rhode, N. L. & Straub, D. 1991. Issues Relating to the Implementation and Management of an Integrated Information Centre. Journal of the American Society for Information Science.
[7] Adman, P. & Warren, L. 1996. Information systems management: Perspectives for Higher Education. Lancs: Mir Press.
[8] Angell, I. O. & Smithson, S. 1991. Information Systems management: Opportunities and Risks. London: Macmillan Education Ltd.
[9] Association for the Development of Education in African. 2001. Technology as a Management Tool: A New Approach and Implementation. http//www.technologia.org/ [accessed on 23rd May 2011].
[10] Greenwald, R., R. Stackowiak, G. Dodge, D. Klein, B. Shapiro and C. G. Ghelliah, 2005. Professional Oracle Programming. Wrox, ISBN: 10: 0764574825, pp: 790.
[11] Blaha M Rumbaugh 2005 (2nd ed.) Object-Oriented Modeling and Design with UML. [Basically this is the second edition of Rumbaugh et al 1991]. Prentice Hall.
[12] Fry B. G. 1997. The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974. In Student Records Management, edited by M Theresa Ruzicka and Beth Lee WeckMulle. London: Greenwood Press, 43-76.
[13] Higgins, J. C. 1976. Information Systems for Planning and Control: Concepts and Cases. London: Edward Arnold.
[14] Husain, K. M. 1977. Information Systems: Basic Concepts, Management Information Systems for Higher Education.
Paris: The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.
[15] Gerald, C. O. 2009. Database Management System. Nigeria National Open University.
[16] Kroenke, D. & Hatach, R. 1994. Management Information Systems, 3rd edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
[17] Tate, M., Evermann, J., Hope, B. & Barnes, S. 2009. Stakeholder Expectations of Service Quality in a University Web Portal. Self-Service in the Internet Age, 1-21.
[18] Telang, R. &Mukhopadhyay, T. 2005. Drivers of Web portal use. Electronic Commerce research and applications, 4, 49- 65.
[19] Maedche, A., Motik, B., Stojanovic, L., Studer, R. &Volz, R. 2003. Ontologies for enterprise knowledge management. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 26-33.

Examining the Effects and Challenges of Cyber Security within the Cyberspace in Sierra Leone.

ABSTRACT
The use of information is increasing everyday with the advent of more applications of social media platform that utilizes millions of data per second globally. These data include sensitive information such as trade secret, privacy and security issues. Most importantly, some organizations, both private and public use this medium to disseminate messages among colleagues especially in Africa. Also, the emergence of smart-phone has accelerated more problems with having little knowledge on security matters. Furthermore, cyber-crimes use this opportunity to launch more cyber-attacks by invading people’s privacy and steal sensitive information such as credit card details, online shopping information of customers, online ticket booking. Government official’s details have being hacked or eavesdropped over the years when using their smart-phones for communications. Emails of prominent people have also being hacked or disrupted, causing huge financial lose. These attacks are on the increase and therefore, countermeasures are vital to combat cyber-crimes and cyber warfare in this hostile cyberspace. The research study the sociological and technological issues that impact cyber-crime and cyber-security within the boundary of Sierra Leone, as a national security threats. The study provides answers to the issues highlighted in the research. An extensive survey was conducted, which highlighted the need for a robust and proactive approach to mitigate the frequency on which cyber-crime is carried out in the country and its neighbors. Data amassed were subjected to relevant questionnaires issued and collected from the respondents in the state security apparatus, based on the conventional approaches or methods of investing crime in Sierra Leone. The research shows that the state has weak laws regarding cyber-crime and cyber security, and most people working in these departments or agencies have little knowledge in cyber security and cyber-crime. In fact, most are on political appointment rather than on merit-base that supposed to be the right procedure that will accelerate and achieve the goals of these institutions.

KEYWORDS: Cybercrime, Cyber Security, Internet of Thing

REFERENCES
[1] Brenner S (2007). Law in an Era of Smart Technology, Oxford: Oxford University Press p. 374.
[2] Longe OB, Chiemeke SC (2008). Cybercrime and criminality in Nigeria – What roles are internet access points in playing? Eur. J. Soc. Sci. 6 (4): 133-139.
[3] Aluko M (2004). 17 ways of stopping financial corruption in Nigeria. www. comcast. net. April 5, 2010.
[4] Erhabor IM (2008). Cybercrime and the Youths (PGDE Thesis), Department of Education, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria, p. 37.
[5] Awe J (2004). Nigeria, South Africa, Ghana top Cybercrime in Africa. www. davidajao. com. 25th June 2010.
[6] Yar M (2005). The novelty of cybercrime: An assessment in light of routine activity theory. Eur. J. Criminol. 2 (4): 407427.
[7] Smith RG, Grabosky P, Urbas G (2004). Cyber Criminals on Trial. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge UP.
[8] Maat S (2004). Cybercrime: A Comparative Law Analysis (Doctoral thesis), University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa p. 239.
[9] Wall DS (2001). Maintaining order and law on the internet. In: Wall DS (Ed.), Crime and the internet. London: Routledge pp. 167-183.
[10] Sharmila Subudhi, Suvasini Panigraphi (2017). QuarterSphere Support Vector Machine for Fraud Detection in Mobile Telecommunication Networks. December 2015 Procedia Computer Science 48: 353-359. DOI: 10.1016/j.procs.2015.04.193.
[11] Zhao et al (2017). Detecting telecommunication fraud by understanding the contents of a call. DOI: 10.1186/s42400018-0008-5
[12] https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327356991_Detectin g_telecommunication_fraud_by_understanding_the_contents_ of_a_call/fulltext/5b8a6e15299bf1d5a7363752/327356991_D etecting_telecommunication_fraud_by_understanding_the_co ntents_of_a_call.pdf?origin=publication_detail
[13]https://www.coe.int/en/web/cybercrime/-/glacy-improvinginternational-cooperation-on-cybercrimeand-electronicevidence-in-west-africa
[14] http://www.au.int/en/sites/default/files/treaties/29560slafrican _union_convention_on_cyber_security_and_personal_data_pr otection.pdf

An Effective Method for e-Medical Data Compression using Wavelet Analysis

ABSTRACT
The continuous utilization of massive patient data via telecommunication medium is raising a concern either in data transmission speed, storage, security and privacy.  The introduction of Informatization, Internet of Things (IoT), Big Data Technology, etc. and others in e-health require an effective data compression techniques that will help solve the numerous challenges evident in the conventional medical image compression schemes. In order to successfully transmit medical data via the network of networks demands an efficient data compression mechanism without reduction in the image quality with reduced size. This mechanism greatly minimize costs, provides mobility and comfort to the users, increase speed in medical file transmission etc.
The research investigates the various medical image compression platforms so, as to derived with the most efficient and effective scheme. Medical image compression require more proactive scheme that maintains vital features of patients. Several compression methods were applied and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) proved to have a superior compression ratio as opposed to Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Huffman coding. The proposed study indicated that the recovered medical images had similar result compared to the original image data.  Finally, the research mitigated the space storage issue of hard disks, reduce transmission time, improved on patient’s mobility and the high cost of medical hardware devices.

KEYWORDS: Wavelet Transform, Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT)

REFERENCES
[1] STEPHEN WONG, LOREN ZAREMBA, DAVID GOODEN, AND H. K. HUANG” Radiologic Image Compression-A Review [2] S. Hludov, Chr. Meinel Institut of Telematics,” DICOM – image compression. [3] Shen-Chuan Tai, Yung-Gi Wu, and Chang-Wei Lin” An Adaptive 3-D Discrete Cosine Transform Coder for Medical Image Compression” [4] Gloria Menegaz” Trends in Medical Image Compression” Dept. of Information Engineering, University of Siena, Via Roma 56, I-53100 Siena, Italy [5] M. Nadir Kumaz, Zumray Dohr, Tamer Olmez” COMPRESSION OF THE MR AND ULTRASOUND IMAGES BY USING WAVELET TRANSFORM” Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey [6] Ms. Sonam Malik and Mr. Vikram Verma’ Comparative analysis of DCT, Haar and Daubechies Wavelet for Image Compression’ Student,Deptt. Of Electronics & Communication JMIT / Radaur /India, Assistant Professor ,Deptt. Of I.T. JMIT / Radaur, India [7] DCT-BASED IMAGE COMPRESSION by Vision Research and Image Sciences Laboratory. [8] Andrew B. Watson, NASA Ames Research Center, Image Compression Using the Discrete Cosine Transform, Mathematica Journal, 4(1), 1994, p. 81-88.
[10] Compression of Medical Images Using Wavelet Transforms- Ruchika, Mooninder Singh, Anant Raj Singh [11] M. Antonini, et al.: “Image Coding Using Wavelet Transforms” IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 205-220, April 1992. [12] Amir Averbuch, et al.: “Image Compression Using Wavelet Transform and Multiresolution Decomposition”, IEEE Trans. Image Processing; vol. 5, no. 1, pp 4-15, January 1996.

The Role of Cyber Security in Minimizing Crime Rate in Post – War Sierra Leone

ABSTRACT
There are numerous benefits one can get from using technological innovations ranging from comfort to minimal cost in telecommunications, health, aviation, commerce, energy, agriculture, intelligence, education via Internet and Internet of things (IoT). However, criminals have over the past decade accelerated sophisticated techniques to steal billions of sensitive data from private individuals, government and corporations costing billions of US dollars globally. Therefore, the research provides awareness as to how these Cybercrimes can be mitigated especially within the scope of Sierra Leone. It largely focuses on the establishment of the Cybercrime Unit at the Central Intelligence Department (CID), and the Office of National Security (ONS). Both units were created by an act of Parliament to secure and protect citizen’s personal data against imminent cyber criminals within the confirmed of Sierra Leone. These agencies are able to solve some of the crimes, but yet still there exist unsolved problems. This is because of the lack of many indigenous cyber security experts in the country. Also, the study indicates that the laws governing cybercrimes are too weak to tackle all the numerous issues relating to internet crime.

KEYWORDS: Scientific Support Department (SSD), Cyber Security, Office of the National Security (ONS), Cybercrimes.

REFERENCE
[1] Eriksson, Johan & Giacomello, Giampiero (2006), The Information Revolution, Security, and International Relations: (IR) relevant Theory? International Political Science Review vol. 27: 221-244
[2] Compete site comparison. http://siteanalytics.compete.com/ facebook.com+myspace.com+twitter.com/
[3] C. Kanich, N. Weaver, D. McCoy, T. Halvorson, C. Kreibich, K. Levchenko, V. Paxson, G. Voelker, and S. Savage. Show Me the Money: Characterizing Spam-advertised Revenue. USENIX Security Symposium, 2011.
[4] B. Stone-Gross, M. Cova, L. Cavallaro, B. Gilbert, M. Szydlowski, R. Kem- merer, C. Kruegel, and G. Vigna. Your Botnet is My Botnet: Analysis of a Bot- net Takeover. In ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS), 2009.
[5] B. Stone-Gross, T. Holz, G. Stringhini, and G. Vigna. The Underground Econ- omy of Spam: A Botmaster’s Perspective of Coordinating Large-Scale Spam Campaigns. In USENIX Workshop on Large-Scale Exploits and Emergent Threats (LEET), 2011.
[6] N. Provos, P. Mavrommatis, M. A. Rajab, and F. Monrose. All your iFRAMEs point to Us. In USENIX Security Symposium, 2008.
[7] C. Grier, K. Thomas, V. Paxson, and M. Zhang. @spam: the underground on 140 characters or less. In ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS), 2010.
[8] K.Thomas,D. McCoy, C. Grier, A. Kolcz, and V. Paxson. Trafficking Fraudulent Accounts: The Role of the Underground Market in Twitter Spam and Abuse. In USENIX Security Symposium, 2013.
[9] Buzan, B. & Hansen, L. (2009), The Evolution of International Security Studies, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Trends in World Military Expenditure, 2017″ (PDF). Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
[10] “Data for all countries from 1988–2017 in constant (2016) USD (pdf)” (PDF). SIPRI. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
[11] Dunn, M. (2003), Securing the Digital Age. In Bombs and Bandwidth: The Emerging Relationship between Information Technology and Security, ed. Robert Latham. New York: The New Press, 85-105.
[12] c5franey. (2011). Disaster Recovery Plan. Retrieved March 21, 2012, from Study Mode: http://www.studymode.com/essays/Disaster-Recovery-Plan-809693.html
[13] T. Jagatic, N. Johnson, M. Jakobsson, and T. Jagatif. Social phishing. Commu- nications of the ACM, 2007.
[14] L. Bilge, T. Strufe, D. Balzarotti, and E. Kirda. All Your Contacts Are Belong to Us: Automated Identity Theft Attacks on Social Networks. In World Wide Web Conference (WWW), 2009.
[15] G. Stringhini, O. Hohlfeld, C. Kruegel, and G. Vigna. The harvester, the botmaster, and the spammer: On the relations between the different actors in the spam landscape. In ACM Symposium on Information, Computer and Communications Security (ASIACCS), 2014.
[16] Lewis, James A. (2014). “National Perceptions of Cyber Threats”. Strategic Analysis, Vol. 38, No. 4
[17] Ibid., 567
[18] Singer & Friedman, 39
[19] Visit report, Sierra Leone Security and Intelligence Service Reform, September 1999.
[20] Hart, Catherine (2011), Mobilizing the Cyberspace Race: the Securitization of the Internet and its Implications for Civil Liberties, Cyber-Surveillance in Everyday Life: An International Workshop, May 12-15, 2011, University of Toronto

Assessing Employees' Motivation in Tertiary Educational Institutions in Sierra Leone: Institution of Advanced Management and Technology (IAMTECH) and Njala University (NU)

Abstract
Employee motivation is a key element that subsequently achieve organizational blueprint in modern day of organizational operations. On this ground, the researchers assess employees’ motivation in tertiary educational institutions in Sierra Leone. It covers the Institute of Advanced Management and Technology (IAMTECH) and its affiliate institution, Njala University (NU). Differences were drawn between these two institutions, as IAMTECH is private and NU public. Motivation is necessary for effective and efficient organizational dynamism such as room for growth, development, health work environment, feeling of belonging, and achievement of organizational objectives. Motivated employees dedicate their energies and skills to their jobs, thereby implementing and attaining the organizational policies and blueprints. This enhances workplace ethics and accelerates employee motivation and performance in tertiary educational institutions in Sierra Leone. It clearly states that motivation is not only giving financial incentives and rewards, but also makes employees’ feel as if they are part of the organization success. It is evident in the research that, applying effective employees’ motivation either moral or financial helps achieve organizational objectives in both public and private sectors in Sierra Leone. However, there are some constrains in achieving the ultimate goal of the research, as most heads and decision makers in these institutions lack the required skills to motivate employees’ performance in this 19th century culturally society in the west coast of Africa. Therefore, the researchers created room for more innovative techniques that will definitely yield maximal employees’ motivation in tertiary educational institutions in Sierra Leone.

KEYWORDS: Feedback, Theory, HRM, Performance Appraisal System; Prejudice, Perception 

References
[1] Nelson, D.L. and Quick, J.C. (2003), Organizational Behaviour: Foundation, Realities and Challenges (4th ed.), Australia: Thomson South-Western. 
[2] Arif, M.H. (2003). Human Development and Learning. Majeed Book Depot, Lahore, Pakistan. Pp.163-180.
[3] Robbins, P. Stephen and Decenzo A. David (2008). Fundamentals of Management: Essential Concept and Application (6th edition) Pearson: U.S.A
[4] Lewis, P. S., Goodman, S. H., & Fandt, P. M. (1995).Management: Challenges in the 21stCentury.New York: West Publishing Company.
[5] Akinfolarin, C. A. (2008). Resource utilization in Vocational and Technical Education in Colleges of Education in South-West Nigeria. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis. University of Ado-Ekiti, Ado-Ekiti.
[6] Muhammad (2010). Motivational Issues for Teachers in Higher Education: A Critical Case of IUB Journal of Management Research ISSN 1941-899X 2010, Vol. 2, No. 2: E3
[7] Aluko M.A. (2002): “Assessing State and Universities in Nigeria.” Conference Paper on Brain Drain in Nigeria. Nicon- Hilton Abuja.
[8] Filak, V. F. (2003). Student Psychological Need Satisfaction and College TeacherCourse Evaluations. Educational Psychology , 23(3), 235-247
[9] Photanan, T. (2004). Human Resource Focus. Bangkok: Innographics Ltd.
[10] Memmott, L., & Growers, S. (March 12& 13,2002). Retaining and motivating employees.
[11] Lee, H. and Yu, C. (2010). Effect of relation style on innovation performance. African Journal of Business Management, 4(9), 1703-1708.
[12] Shanks, Nancy H. “Chapter 2.”Management and Motivation. Jones and Barlett.23-35. Print.
[13] Bandele, S. O. (2003). The Universal Basic Education in Perspective, Need for Formative Evaluation. Nigeria. Journal of Educational Research and Evaluation, 1(4), 54-56.

Technical Paper Publication

Books

Success in Mathematics

Basic Computing: An Integral Component of our Everyday Life

ISBN-13: 978-613-8-93197-3
ISBN-10: 6138931971

Thesis Published

A Master Thesis
Topic: DWT Based Image Compression for Health Systems

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.28339.48162
ISSN: 2208-2425

Ph.D Thesis
Topic: The Role of Cyber Security in Minimizing Online Crime Rate in Postwar Sierra Leone: Office of the National Security (ONS), and the Cybercrime Unit at the Criminal Investigation Department (CID)-Ph.D.

Short Articles

Once upon a time in Asia

My Dream Come True

Theses Unpublished

WEATHER NEWS

Sierra Leone Freetown